First Aid

In Case of Wound

The first and foremost first-aid measure in case of a wound is to mitigate anything that disturbs the healing process - like movement of the injured person’s body, cleaning off the dirt in the wound etc.  The wound can be exposed to cold running water as well for quicker healing. In case of glass pieces, thorns or any foreign particles being stuck inside the wound, tweezers should be used to remove the same to mitigate infection.

In Case of Profuse Bleeding

One of the most effective steps to reduce over bleeding is to use a clean and neatly-folded cloth to apply pressure directly on the area of wound. One should never use one’s fingers to lean on the wound, but rather use one’s heel of the hands.

In Case of a Fracture

When the wound results in a fracture, applying a pressure bandage and splint will help in healing process. One should never thrust one’s hand in the area of fracture. Also, the patient should not be given any solid or liquid food. This is because, when he eats anything, he might get a vomiting sensation if his head is injured or when he is given a local anaesthesia for surgical purposes.

If the fractured area on the arms or limbs is over bleeding, then that particular part can be kept at an elevated position, so that it will reduce the blood flow and control bleeding.

In Case of Chest or Abdomen Injury

An injury to the abdomen will result in the intestines getting exposed. In this case, a wet and clean cloth must be tied to the patient’s abdomen to avoid the dry sensation on the intestines. This wet cloth must be tied over the wound quickly before the patient can be rushed to the hospital. The wet cloth will also easily get stuck on to the intestines and avoid them from getting exposed.

In case of injuries to the chest, the breathing pattern of the patient gets impacted as the wound absorbs a lot of external air. In this case, polythene should be used to first cover off the wound and then applying a bandage over the same will reduce the air getting sucked in. The patient should then be quickly taken to the hospital without any time delay.

In Case a Part of a Limb is cut off

Today, due to the medical advancements in the industry, it is possible to attach a part of the limb to one’s body in case it has been cut off separately due to an accident. This is possibly provided the patient reaches the hospital on time. The cut-off part should put inside a polythene cover and this should then be inserted into a bag of cold water. If there is a possibility of getting ice cubes during first aid, then few cubes must be put into the water to keep it cold till the time the patient reaches the hospital. In no case, the cut off portion should be allowed to get soaked in water. If bags or ice cubes are no available, just a clean cloth will do. Cover the amputated part in this cloth and rush the patient to the hospital.

In heavy injuries, it is not advisable to wash the wounds in water as this may result in huge loss of blood. The only thing that would help here is to use a clean cloth to cover the wound and then apply a pressure bandage tightly over the amputated portion. Ensure that the patient’s wounded limb is kept at an elevated level. Under no circumstances should raw cotton be used to cover the wound, as it gets stuck in the wound and makes cleaning process difficult.

In Case of an Eye Wound

In case of injuries to the eye, the first thing to do is to use a clean and mild cloth to cover the injured eye and cover it with a stiff object so that the eye is not exposed to any pressure. Patients should never attempt to clean their eye-injuries by themselves. Even a small wound may have many objects stuck on to it.

In Case of Bleeding from Ear

Ear bleeding might mean that only the ear is injured or the head is injured. Patients or helpers should not put any foreign objects inside the injured ear to stop blood loss as it may lead to permanent damage to their eardrum. The patient must be made to lie down with the injured ear facing downward direction.

In Case of Bleeding from Nose

A nose injury, too, could mean that only the nose is injured or the head is injured. In case patients are fit enough to sit up, they can be asked to breathe through their mouth after pinching his nose. He could also sit leaning towards the front so that blood flowing into his wind pipe is arrested.  When the patient is not conscious, he should lie down on one of his sides so that choking can be prevented.

In Case of Injuries to Muscles, Bones and Joints

When a muscle, bone or joint gets injured, it results in swelling of that particular place. This is because blood gets accumulated here. Bleeding can be reduced by applying regular ice packs. Ice packs should be given only intermittently as prolonged periods create frostbites in the wounded area. Also, ice should not be exposed to the skin of the patient directly. A cloth should always be used in this case. In case muscles are injured, then inserting a splint on the limb that is injured will help in reducing pain.

In Case of Broken Bones and Dislocated Joints

In case a particular body part cannot be moved at all or is under immense pain, then there’s a probability that the bone could be dislocated or broken. The first thing the patient should do is to reduce all kinds of movement on the injured area, so that the pain is reduced phenomenally. Splits should be inserted after careful consideration.

Shifting the Injured to the Hospital

  • No further ache is caused to the patient.
  • A firm board or stretcher to be used to keep the patient’s spine stable and straight.
  • At least a couple of helpers are needed to ensure that the patient’s airway, spine and neck are safeguarded against further injury.
  • When patients are not conscious, a thickly folded cloth to be kept under the neck, so that it stays firm.
  • Ample room in the vehicle to keep the spine of the patient’s back straight. Helpers should be able to give required care for the patients whenever necessary.
  • As the vehicle moves, helpers should continuously check the patient’s breathing and pulse levels and if his airway is clear.
  • In case of injuries to limb, patients can be transported to vehicles in sitting position. Limb injuries should be protected carefully to avoid blood loss.

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